Kaifiyāt-i-Arba‘a As A Prime Cause of Physical Changes Of Matter

Ansari Abdul Waqas, Momin Shahzad, Naziya Aejaz Rasool


Background and Objectives: The study of the physical universe, its structure, dynamics, origin and evolution, and fate are still having the ground for further research. Cosmology is the biggest challenge from the ancient time till today for philosophers and thinkers. The Aristotle and other philosophers have given the fundamentals about the genesis of all living and non-living things. Their observations were based on naked eye examinations. They believe that the four primary qualities which are known as Kaifiyāt-i-Arba‘a in Arabic and Unani Medicine i.e. Heat, Cold, Moisture, and Dryness are mandatory for each reaction, and are responsible for genesis, destruction, putrefaction, changes and variations of all the things. For example; the lower temperature of the scrotum is necessary for the production of semen in the testicles. We cannot make Ice without maintaining the appropriate cold temperature. Similarly the evaporation of water cannot take place unless the water is warmed up by the appropriate heat. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of four primary qualities regarding the physical changes and variations in all the things.

Methods: Literature related to four primary qualities of the matter (Kaifiyāt-i-Arba‘a) was surveyed from various classical Unani books, journals, periodicals, manuscripts, and online citations from the subject specific websites. Collected material was then analyzed and systematized in comprehensive manner.

Conclusion: Kaifiyāt-i-Arba‘a are four primary qualities of the each matter i.e. Heat, Cold, Moisture, and Dryness. These are perceived by touch and tactile sensations only. These four qualities are responsible for destruction and putrefaction, build-up and break-down processes of each physical body.

International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 02 No. 03 July’18. Page : 131-135


Matter; Physical changes; Destructions; Kaifiyat-i-Arba; Unani Medicine

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31344/ijhhs.v2i3.40


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